The introduction of any study or research paper is crucial as it sets the tone for what follows. In this essay titled '*Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron)*', WE will explore the concept of Adaline, its significance in the field of artificial neural networks, and its applications in various domains. Adaline, also known as Adaptive Linear Neuron, is a single-layer artificial neural network that was developed as an extension of the perceptron model. It incorporates advanced mathematical principles to adapt and learn from input data, making it a powerful tool for pattern recognition and classification tasks. Through a comprehensive analysis, this essay aims to shed light on the capabilities and limitations of Adaline, as well as its potential for further advancements in the realm of AI and machine learning.

## Background information on Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron)

Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) is a class of single-layer neural network models developed in the 1960s as an extension to the original perceptron algorithm. It was proposed by Bernard Widrow and Ted Hoff to address the limitations of the perceptron, specifically in handling continuous input patterns and dealing with linearly non-separable data. Adaline's architecture consists of a single layer of nodes, where each node computes a linear combination of its inputs using adjustable weights. The model utilizes an error function to adjust the weights iteratively through a process called gradient descent. Adaline has proven to be useful in various applications, such as pattern recognition and control systems, and has laid the foundation for more advanced neural network architectures.

### Purpose of the essay

The purpose of this essay is to explore the concept and significance of the Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) algorithm. Adaline is a form of artificial neural network (ANN) developed in the late 1950s, which laid the foundation for subsequent advancements in machine learning and pattern recognition. This essay aims to provide an in-depth understanding of Adaline by detailing its structure, functioning, and practical applications. Additionally, it will examine its strengths and limitations, comparing it to other ANN models. By studying Adaline's historical context and its impact on the field of artificial intelligence, we can appreciate its contributions and consider its relevance in contemporary machine learning systems.

Another notable feature of the Adaline algorithm is its ability to utilize a bias term, which enhances its learning capabilities. The bias term acts as an additional input that is always equal to 1, and it is multiplied by a separate weight. This allows Adaline to learn and adjust its decision boundary not only based on the data points themselves but also based on a constant term, which can be particularly helpful in situations where the data does not naturally separate in a linear manner. By including the bias term, Adaline becomes more flexible and versatile in capturing complex patterns, making it a powerful tool in machine learning applications.

## History and Development of Adaline

The history and development of Adaline can be traced back to its inception in the late 1950s. Adaline, short for ADAptive LInear NEuron, was introduced as a precursor to the famous perceptron, a single-layer neural network. The development of Adaline was primarily led by Bernard Widrow and Ted Hoff at the Stanford Research Institute. Adaline played a crucial role in laying the foundation for the advancement of artificial neural networks. It incorporated the concept of linear regression to adapt its weights based on input data. This breakthrough approach allowed Adaline to learn and make predictions by minimizing the error between its output and the desired output, thus paving the way for more complex neural network architectures. The success of Adaline marked a significant advancement in the field of artificial intelligence and set the path for future innovative developments.

### Origins of Adaline in the field of artificial intelligence

Adaline, also known as ADAptive LInear NEuron, is a significant development in the field of artificial intelligence, with its origins tracing back to a research project conducted by two scientists, Bernard Widrow and Marcian Hoff, at Stanford University in the late 1950s. The objective of their project was to create a system that could adapt to and learn from its environment. Drawing inspiration from the foundation laid by Frank Rosenblatt's Perceptron, Widrow and Hoff sought to enhance its capabilities by introducing adaptive features. Thus, they developed Adaline, an artificial neural network model that employed linear activation and adjustable weights to learn and make predictions. These fundamental developments set the stage for subsequent advancements in the field of artificial intelligence.

### Contribution of Dr. Bernard Widrow and Marcian Hoff

Dr. Bernard Widrow and Marcian Hoff both made significant contributions to the development of the Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) model. Dr. Widrow, a prominent researcher in the field of adaptive signal processing, introduced the concept of adaptive filtering which formed the basis of the Adaline model. He emphasized the importance of developing algorithms that can adjust their parameters in response to changing environments. Marcian Hoff, on the other hand, designed the architecture of the Adaline model, proposing the use of a single-layer neural network with adaptive weights to perform linear classification tasks. Together, their collaboration led to the creation of a powerful learning algorithm capable of solving complex problems in various domains.

### Evolution and improvements over time

Furthermore, evolution and improvements over time have allowed for significant advancements in the Adaline model. One notable enhancement is the introduction of the backpropagation algorithm. This algorithm, first proposed by Geoffrey Hinton in 1986, enables the model to learn from its mistakes by adjusting the weights in the network accordingly. By iteratively comparing the predicted outputs with the desired outputs and updating the weights based on the error, the model gradually becomes more accurate in its predictions. The inclusion of backpropagation has revolutionized the field of artificial neural networks, making Adaline a powerful tool in machine learning applications.

Additionally, the Adaline model has proven to be effective in various applications, particularly in pattern recognition problems. It is capable of learning and distinguishing between different patterns by adjusting its weight values. For instance, in handwritten digit recognition, Adaline can analyze and classify different numerical characters accurately. Moreover, the Adaline model overcomes the limitations of the perceptron algorithm by utilizing the continuous activation function. This allows the model to compute real-valued outputs, providing more flexibility in capturing subtle distinctions between patterns. Furthermore, the Adaline model can handle linearly inseparable data by employing the Widrow-Hoff learning rule, which updates the weight values incrementally. Hence, these features make Adaline a powerful tool for solving various classification tasks.

## Working Principle of Adaline

The working principle of Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) is based on the concept of linear regression. It employs a linear activation function to compute the output. Adaline consists of an input layer, a weight adjustment process, and an output layer. The input layer receives input values, which are then multiplied by corresponding weights. These weighted inputs are summed up, and the resulting sum is compared to a threshold value. If the sum exceeds the threshold, the output is activated; otherwise, it is not. The weight adjustment process involves iteratively updating the weights by calculating the error between the desired output and the actual output. In this way, Adaline learns to improve its performance over time.

### Overview of the Perceptron Model

The perceptron model, developed by Frank Rosenblatt in 1958, serves as the foundation for further developments in artificial neural networks. Unlike the McCulloch-Pitts Neuron, the perceptron is capable of learning and adjusting its weights. It consists of an input layer, a processing layer, and an output layer. The input layer receives input patterns and transmits them to the processing layer. The processing layer calculates an activation value by summing the products of inputs and their corresponding weights. The activation value is then compared to a threshold value, which determines the output of the perceptron. The perceptron model also utilizes a learning rule, known as the Delta Rule, to adjust the weights and improve the accuracy of classification.

### Differentiate Adaline from Perceptron

In terms of architecture and learning ability, Adaline and Perceptron exhibit significant differences. While both models belong to the class of linear threshold units, Adaline possesses the remarkable capability of continuous adaptation through the incorporation of an additional process known as a weight adjustment mechanism. In contrast, Perceptron adjusts its weights based on a binary learning rule, which limits its learning capacity to linearly separable tasks. Furthermore, Adaline employs a linear activation function, allowing for a more diverse range of input-output mappings, while Perceptron employs a step function, producing binary outputs. Hence, the distinct characteristics of Adaline and Perceptron contribute to their varying performance in different tasks.

### Features and components of Adaline

One of the key features of Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) is its ability to adapt and learn from input data. Adaline consists of multiple components that work together to achieve this. Its input layer receives input signals, which are then weighted and summed in the weight layer. These weighted sums are then passed through an activation function, typically a linear activation function, to generate the output. The output is compared to the desired output, and the error is calculated. The error is then used to adjust the weights in the weight layer through a process called error correction, utilizing the Widrow-Hoff rule or LMS (Least Mean Square) algorithm. This iterative process continues until the error converges to a satisfactory level. Through its features and components, Adaline demonstrates the ability to self-adjust and improve its performance based on the input data it receives.

### Detailed explanation of the learning algorithm

The learning algorithm employed by Adaline, known as the ADAptive LInear NEuron algorithm, can be further elucidated. At each iteration, the weights are adjusted to minimize the cost function, which is defined as the difference between the actual output and the desired output multiplied by the input. This optimization process is achieved through the use of a gradient descent approach. The weights are updated using the gradient of the cost function, multiplied by a learning rate, which determines the step size towards the optimal weights. This iterative process continues until the model reaches convergence or the specified number of iterations. Overall, the ADAptive LInear NEuron algorithm employs a gradient descent approach to iteratively adjust the weights and minimize the cost function.

In conclusion, the Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) has proven to be an indispensable tool in the field of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Its ability to autonomously adjust its weights and thresholds based on error minimization has greatly enhanced the speed and accuracy of pattern recognition tasks. The utilization of Adaline in various applications such as speech and image recognition has produced remarkable results, giving rise to new possibilities in the development of intelligent systems. However, despite its strengths, Adaline is not without its limitations. It heavily relies on linear activation functions and is highly sensitive to input variations. Further research is needed to overcome these challenges and expand the capabilities of Adaline in order to fully exploit its potential in the realm of artificial intelligence and machine learning.

## Applications of Adaline

One major application of Adaline is pattern recognition. Adaline possesses the ability to recognize and classify patterns based on its learning process. By adjusting its weights and bias dynamically, Adaline can create decision boundaries that separate different patterns in the input space. This makes it incredibly helpful in tasks such as speech recognition, handwriting recognition, and image recognition. Adaline can also be used in the field of signal processing. By analyzing input signals, Adaline can effectively filter out noise and enhance the overall quality of the signal. This makes it suitable for various applications in telecommunications, including data transmission and speech processing.

### Pattern recognition and classification

Pattern recognition and classification are important tasks in various fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, and data analysis. Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron), introduced by Bernard Widrow and Ted Hoff in the late 1950s, is a model that utilizes pattern recognition and classification techniques. Adaline works by adjusting its weight values in order to minimize the error between the predicted output and the target output. This adaptive learning process allows Adaline to continuously refine its model and improve its classification accuracy. Due to its simplicity and effectiveness, Adaline has been widely used in various applications, including speech recognition, image processing, and financial forecasting.

### Noise filtering and signal processing

Noise filtering and signal processing are crucial aspects of Adaline's functionality. In order to ensure accurate and reliable output, Adaline employs various techniques to filter out unwanted noise and process the incoming signals. One such technique is the use of a threshold function, which allows Adaline to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant data. Additionally, Adaline employs an adaptive learning algorithm that adjusts its weights and biases based on the error feedback received during training. This process aids in optimizing the system's performance and enhancing its ability to filter out noise and enhance the desired signals. These noise filtering and signal processing techniques make Adaline a powerful tool in tackling real-world problems.

### Adaptive control systems

In conclusion, the Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) algorithm is a vital part of adaptive control systems. Its ability to adjust its weights and thresholds based on external inputs makes it suitable for various applications such as pattern recognition, noise cancellation, and signal processing. As discussed throughout this essay, Adaline works by iteratively updating its weight vector to minimize the error between the desired output and the predicted output. By employing gradient descent and the Widrow-Hoff learning rule, the algorithm continually learns and adapts to the changes in the input space. Its simplicity and effectiveness make Adaline a valuable tool in the field of adaptive control systems.

### Speech and image processing

Speech and image processing play crucial roles in the development and improvement of Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) models. The ability to analyze and process both visual and auditory data is vital for the successful implementation of Adaline in various applications. In speech processing, the goal is to convert spoken language into a format that can be understood and processed by machines. Techniques such as speech recognition and natural language processing are utilized to achieve this. On the other hand, image processing involves transforming visual data captured by cameras or sensors into a format that can be analyzed and used for various tasks like object recognition and scene understanding. By incorporating these techniques, Adaline models can not only learn from textual or numerical data but also from multi-modal data, enabling them to handle complex tasks efficiently.

### Examples of real-world applications

Examples of real-world applications demonstrate the practicality and potential of Adaline. One area where Adaline finds utility is in pattern recognition tasks, such as speech and image processing. By training on large datasets, Adaline is able to learn and accurately classify patterns, enabling it to recognize spoken words or identify objects in images. Additionally, Adaline is also used in control systems, wherein it adjusts its weights to minimize errors and improve system performance. This is particularly useful in tasks like autonomous vehicle navigation or robotic control. These examples highlight the versatility and efficacy of Adaline in various applications, making it a valuable tool in modern technology.

In recent years, researchers have made significant progress in the field of artificial intelligence, particularly in the development of adaptive linear neural networks. One such network, known as Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron), holds great promise in various applications. Adaline operates on the basic principles of a linear combination of input features, weights, and a bias term. However, what sets Adaline apart is its ability to adapt and learn from its mistakes through a process called gradient descent. By gradually adjusting its weights and bias term using a specified learning rate, Adaline can minimize the error between its predicted output and the desired output. This adaptive feature enables Adaline to continually improve its performance, making it a valuable tool in tasks such as pattern recognition and classification.

## Advantages and Limitations of Adaline

Adaline, also known as ADAptive LInear NEuron, offers several advantages in the field of artificial neural networks. Firstly, its capability to learn linearly separable patterns makes it highly suitable for classification tasks. Adaline adjusts its weights using a continuous learning rule, which enables it to converge quickly towards the optimal solution. Additionally, this adaptive linear neuron can handle both continuous and discrete input patterns, making it versatile for various applications. However, despite its strengths, Adaline has limitations. Its performance deteriorates when confronted with non-linearly separable problems, rendering it ineffective in such scenarios. Moreover, it relies heavily on feature engineering and requires carefully selected input features to achieve accurate outcomes.

### Advantages of Adaline over traditional algorithms

One of the major advantages of Adaline over traditional algorithms is its ability to continuously learn and adapt to changing patterns in data. Unlike traditional algorithms that require a batch learning approach, Adaline employs online learning, which means it can update its weights and biases in real-time as new information becomes available. This makes Adaline highly flexible and capable of handling dynamic and evolving data sets. Additionally, Adaline's adaptive nature allows it to converge to optimal weights and biases more efficiently, leading to faster and more accurate predictions. Overall, these advantages make Adaline a powerful and versatile tool for various applications in pattern recognition and machine learning.

### Limitations and challenges in implementing Adaline

Implementing Adaline, despite its potential, is not without limitations and challenges. One major limitation is its reliance on linear activation functions, which restricts its ability to handle complex patterns and non-linear relationships. As a result, Adaline may struggle to accurately classify datasets with intricate decision boundaries. Additionally, Adaline's performance heavily relies on the quality and quantity of training data available. Inadequate or biased datasets can lead to inaccurate predictions and compromised generalization capabilities. Lastly, Adaline's training process can be computationally intensive, especially when dealing with high-dimensional feature spaces or large datasets, making it time-consuming and resource-demanding. Overcoming these limitations and challenges remains a crucial area of research to enhance the performance and applicability of Adaline in real-world scenarios.

### Comparison with other machine learning algorithms

In comparison to other machine learning algorithms, Adaline offers distinct advantages. While it shares similarities with the perceptron algorithm, Adaline employs a continuous, linear activation function, enabling it to learn even when the output is not binary. By utilizing the gradient descent algorithm, Adaline can optimize its weights iteratively, enhancing its learning capabilities. Moreover, Adaline's ability to handle numeric input features without the need for additional preprocessing proves to be advantageous in numerous applications. However, it is essential to note that Adaline's convergence is highly dependent on the input data and the feature scaling technique employed. Ultimately, considering its strengths and limitations is crucial in determining its suitability for specific problems.

The Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) is a single-layer artificial neural network that employs the Widrow-Hoff learning rule, also known as the delta rule, to update its weights. Introduced by Bernard Widrow and Tedd Hoff in 1960, Adaline is an improvement over the simpler perceptron, allowing for the learning of continuous-valued outputs. Adaline works by computing a linear combination of its inputs and adjusting the weights according to the error term derived from the difference between the desired output and the actual output. This adjustment process continues until the weights converge to minimize the mean squared error. Adaline has found applications in various fields, including pattern recognition and signal processing.

## Case Studies

In order to further evaluate the effectiveness of the Adaline algorithm, several case studies have been conducted. One such case study involved the classification of handwritten digits from the popular MNIST dataset. The Adaline algorithm was trained on a subset of the dataset, and then tested on the remaining samples. The results of this case study demonstrated impressive performance, with an accuracy rate of over 90%. Another case study focused on the prediction of stock prices using historical market data. The Adaline algorithm was able to successfully predict the direction of stock prices with a high level of accuracy, making it a promising tool for financial forecasting tasks. These case studies highlight the versatility and practicality of the Adaline algorithm in real-world applications.

### Case study 1: Adaline in financial market prediction

In a case study examining the use of Adaline in financial market prediction, researchers sought to determine the effectiveness of this neural network model. By analyzing historical financial data, they inputted various features such as stock prices, trading volumes, and price-to-earnings ratios into the Adaline model. The network was trained to predict future market movements based on these inputs. The study found that Adaline was able to provide accurate predictions, outperforming traditional forecasting methods. These findings suggest that Adaline has the potential to be a valuable tool in financial markets, assisting investors in making informed decisions and optimizing their portfolios.

### Case study 2: Adaline in medical diagnosis

In another case study, Adaline has shown its potential in the field of medical diagnosis. Researchers have trained Adaline using medical data to help diagnose certain diseases more accurately. By inputting patient information such as symptoms, lab results, and medical histories, Adaline is able to analyze the data and provide predictions on the likelihood of different diseases. The ability of Adaline to adapt and learn from new information ensures that it can continuously improve its diagnostic accuracy over time. This can greatly benefit the medical community by assisting doctors in making more informed decisions and potentially reducing misdiagnoses, leading to better patient outcomes.

### Case study 3: Adaline in autonomous vehicle navigation

In the context of autonomous vehicle navigation, Adaline has been applied to successfully enhance the capabilities of self-driving cars. One notable case study involves the integration of Adaline in an autonomous vehicle tasked with navigating through complex urban environments. By utilizing Adaline's adaptive learning mechanism, the vehicle is able to continuously update its route planning and decision-making processes based on real-time data and feedback from its sensors. This empowers the vehicle to adapt to changing traffic conditions, avoid obstacles, and make informed decisions about acceleration, braking, and lane changing. As a result, the integration of Adaline significantly improves the overall safety, efficiency, and reliability of autonomous vehicle navigation systems.

Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) is a variant of the perceptron algorithm that was proposed by Bernard Widrow and Ted Hoff in 1960. Unlike the perceptron, Adaline utilizes a continuous activation function, which allows it to make gradual adjustments to its weights and biases. This continuous nature enables Adaline to converge to a solution even when the input data is linearly separable, unlike the perceptron which may struggle with such cases. Additionally, Adaline incorporates a learning rule known as the Widrow-Hoff rule, which utilizes the stochastic gradient descent algorithm to optimize its weight values. These features make Adaline a valuable tool in applications such as pattern recognition and signal processing.

## Future Trends and Further Research

In conclusion, the Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) algorithm has exhibited remarkable performance in addressing various classification tasks in machine learning. However, there are several avenues for further research and exploration to enhance its capabilities. Firstly, investigating the integration of Adaline with other advanced algorithms, such as deep learning architectures, can potentially yield more accurate predictions. Additionally, exploring the impact of different learning rates and activation functions on Adaline's performance could lead to significant improvements. Furthermore, investigating the potential applications of Adaline in real-time systems, such as robotics and autonomous vehicles, could pave the way for its adoption in various industries. These future research directions hold the promise of further optimizing the Adaline algorithm and expanding its applicability in the field of machine learning.

### Current advances in Adaline and its applications

Current advances in Adaline, also known as ADAptive LInear NEuron, have led to its wide range of applications in various fields. Recent research has focused on enhancing the performance and versatility of Adaline through improvements in the learning algorithms and data processing techniques. These advances have resulted in the development of Adaline models with higher accuracy in classification and prediction tasks, making it a valuable tool in various domains such as pattern recognition, signal processing, data analytics, and machine learning. Furthermore, the integration of Adaline with emerging technologies like artificial intelligence and deep learning has amplified its potential in solving complex problems and advancing scientific understanding.

### Opportunities for future research and development

In conclusion, the Adaline model has shown great potential in various fields of applications, such as pattern recognition and adaptive filtering. However, there are still ample opportunities for future research and development. Firstly, the exploration of different activation functions could enhance the model's performance and its ability to handle complex datasets. Secondly, comparing Adaline with other popular machine learning algorithms, such as support vector machines and deep neural networks, can provide insights into its strengths and weaknesses. Lastly, investigating the model's scalability and efficiency in handling large-scale datasets can help make it more suitable for real-world applications. Further research in these areas can contribute to advancing the Adaline model and expanding its usability in diverse industries.

### Potential challenges and areas of improvement

Potential challenges and areas of improvement for the Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) algorithm lie in several aspects. Firstly, its reliance on a linear activation function limits its ability to handle nonlinear problems effectively. To overcome this, incorporating a nonlinear activation function can enhance its learning capability. Secondly, Adaline's sensitivity to the initial weights and bias values can lead to suboptimal performance, necessitating the need for efficient techniques to initialize these parameters. Additionally, Adaline might suffer from high computational complexity when the number of input features is large or when dealing with high-dimensional datasets. Therefore, developing strategies to mitigate this challenge is crucial for improving the algorithm's scalability and efficiency.

The concept of artificial neural networks (ANNs) has garnered significant attention in recent years due to its potential applications in various fields. Among the different types of ANNs, the adaptive linear neuron (Adaline) stands out for its unique architecture and learning capabilities. Developed in the 1960s by Bernard Widrow and Marcian Hoff, Adaline departs from its predecessor, the perceptron, by utilizing a continuous linear activation function which allows for real-valued outputs. This characteristic facilitates the model's ability to converge to the optimal weights during the training phase. Adaline has found numerous applications in pattern recognition, data classification, and signal processing due to its simplicity, efficiency, and adaptability.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, the development and implementation of the Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) model have revolutionized the field of artificial neural networks. Through its unique structure and learning algorithm, Adaline has proven to be a powerful tool for solving linear classification problems. Its ability to autonomously adjust its weights and thresholds based on input data enables it to adapt and learn from new information, making it highly flexible and efficient. Moreover, the incorporation of the delta rule has further enhanced the learning capabilities of Adaline, allowing it to converge towards the optimal solution, even in the presence of noisy or incomplete data. As a result, Adaline offers great potential for various real-world applications, ranging from pattern recognition and predictive modeling to biometrics and robotics.

### Recapitulation of main points discussed

In conclusion, this essay has explored the Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) model, discussing its significant features and applications. Adaline is an artificial neural network model that employs a linear activation function to learn and classify input patterns. Its unique ability to adapt weights through a learning algorithm called the Widrow-Hoff rule enables it to continuously update its performance. We have also examined the main components of Adaline, including the weight adjustment process, the threshold function, and the importance of input scaling. Additionally, the essay has addressed the limitations and advantages of Adaline, highlighting its usefulness in linearly separable pattern classification tasks. Overall, understanding the functionalities and implications of Adaline can greatly contribute to the advancement of machine learning techniques and artificial intelligence research.

### Importance of Adaline in the field of artificial intelligence

In the field of artificial intelligence, Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron) has emerged as a significant concept with great importance. Adaline plays a pivotal role in solving pattern recognition problems, as it utilizes a linear combination of input variables to generate an output signal. This technology improves the overall efficiency and accuracy of machine learning systems, making it an indispensable tool for advancements in various domains, including speech and image recognition. With its adaptive capabilities, Adaline enables self-adjustment of its weight values, thereby enhancing its ability to learn and adapt to changing patterns. Its application in artificial intelligence has opened up new avenues for innovation and is revolutionizing how machines perceive and understand the world around them.

### Final thoughts on the future prospects of Adaline

In conclusion, the future prospects of Adaline appear to be promising in various domains. It has shown remarkable potential in pattern recognition tasks, making it a valuable tool in fields such as image and speech processing. Its ability to adapt and learn from input data enables it to continuously improve its performance, making it highly suitable for dynamic environments. Additionally, the simplicity of its architecture and ease of implementation make it an attractive choice for practical applications. However, further research is required to fully explore the capabilities of Adaline and optimize its performance in complex and high-dimensional datasets. Nonetheless, Adaline's current achievements suggest a bright future for this adaptive linear neuron model.

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